The Editor's Manual
Grammar, usage, punctuation, and style resource for editors, writers, and learners of the English language.
Use commas before and after the year in the American date format (May 1, 2021) but not in British (1 May 2021). No comma is needed when only the month and year are specified (May 2021).
American date format is month-day-year (May 1, 2021); British is day-month-year (1 May 2021). Use commas between day and year in American English; no commas are needed in dates in British English.
When to use which: In/into/inside/within, in/during, for/since, on/upon/onto, over/above, over/more than, under/less than, below/beneath/under/underneath, off/of, beside/besides, round/around, to/toward/towards.
Collective nouns such as “team” and “government” are generally treated as singular in American English but plural in British English. Whether they take singular or plural verbs and pronouns also depends on whether you want to refer to the group as a single unit or to the individual members of the group.
Em dashes can replace commas, colons, and parentheses in sentences. Use an em dash to set off parenthetical and explanatory statements. Also use this dash to mark interruptions and sudden breaks in thought.
Periods are generally not inserted in abbreviations with more than one capital letter (MD, PhD). Contractions, shortened forms, and other abbreviations with lowercase letters usually contain a period (etc., p.m., Dr.). Don’t place a period after an abbreviated SI unit (cm, dl).